One in four children with ASD develops seizures, often starting either in early childhood or adolescence. 5 Seizures, caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, can produce a temporary loss of consciousness (a “blackout”), a body convulsion, unusual movements, or staring spells. Sometimes a contributing factor is a lack of sleep or a high fever. An EEG (electroencephalogram—recording of the electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp) can help confirm the seizure’s presence.
In most cases, seizures can be controlled by a number of medicines called “anticonvulsants.” The dosage of the medication is adjusted carefully so that the least possible amount of medication will be used to be effective.
Fragile X Syndrome
This disorder is the most common inherited form of mental retardation. It was so named because one part of the X chromosome has a defective piece that appears pinched and fragile when under a microscope. Fragile X syndrome affects about two to five percent of people with ASD. It is important to have a child with ASD checked for Fragile X, especially if the parents are considering having another child. For an unknown reason, if a child with ASD also has Fragile X, there is a one-in-two chance that boys born to the same parents will have the syndrome. 6 Other members of the family who may be contemplating having a child may also wish to be checked for the syndrome.
A distinction can be made between a father’s and mother’s ability to pass along to a daughter or son the altered gene on the X chromosome that is linked to fragile X syndrome. Because both males (XY) and females (XX) have at least one X chromosome, both can pass on the mutated gene to their children.