Other pharmaceutical options include topical analgesics, which are applied to the skin. Creams such as lidocaine, or a combination of ketamine, clonidine, and amitriptyline may reduce hypersensitivity.
Heat and cold therapy may help to reduce sweating and inflammation.
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) provides pain relief by applying electrical impulses to nerve endings.
Spinal cord stimulation involves tiny electrodes being inserted into the spinal cord, providing effective pain relief for many patients.