Although there are many concerns about labeling a young child with an autism spectrum disorder, the earlier the diagnosis of autism is made, the earlier needed interventions can begin. Evidence over the last 15 years indicates that intensive early intervention in optimal educational settings for at least 2 years during the preschool years results in improved outcomes in most young children with autism spectrum disorders.
In evaluating a child, clinicians rely on behavioral characteristics to make a diagnosis. Some of the characteristic behaviors of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be apparent in the first few months of a child’s life, or they may appear at any time during the early years. For the diagnosis, problems in at least one of the areas of communication, socialization, or restricted behavior must be present before the age of 3. The diagnosis requires a two-stage process. The first stage involves developmental screening during “well child” check-ups; the second stage entails a comprehensive evaluation by a multidisciplinary team.